Rangamati(Bengali:রাঙ্গামাটি পার্বত্যজেলা) is a district in South-eastern Bangladesh. It is a part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the town of Rangamati serves as the headquarters of the district. Area-wise, Rangamati is the largest district of the country.
The total population is 5,08,182 according to 2005 census of which tribal 52% and non-tribal 48%. The number of males is 2,87,060 and the females are 2,38,043 (Census 2001). The density of population is 83 per square kilometer (Census 2001). The number of household is 1,03,974 having the household size 4.8 (Census 2001). The total population is divided into Bangalees and eleven tribes (ethnic minorities): Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripura, Pankua, Lushi, Khiang, Murang, Rakhain, Chak, Bowm,Khumi.
Tribal population : (as per census of 2005 ):
Chakma-1,86,395, Marma-44,727, Tanchanga-18,607, Tripura-6,697, Pankho- 2,118, Bowm-1,053, khyang- 791, Lusai- 217, Chak- 177, Rakhain-70, Khumi-50,Gurkha-03,Etc.-174
As per 1991 census, the religious break up of the population of the district were: Buddhist 53.83%,Muslim 39.28%, Hindu 5.62% and Christian 1.12%. Religious institutions Pagoda 1230, Mosque 1059, Temple 65, Church 16. Genderwise, male constituted 53.59% and female constituted 46.41% of the population.
· Rangamati was a contesting ground for the kings of Tripura and Arakan.This region came under the Mughal Empire after the Muslim invasion in 1566.
· In 1737 Sher Mosta Khan,a tribal leader,took refuge with the Mughals. After this the Chakma settlement began along with various other settlements of varying ethnicity.
· From 1760 to 1761,this land was leased to the East India Company